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Chinesisches Porzellan stellt einen zentralen Bestandteil der Kunst und Kultur Chinas dar. Es wurde zum Vorbild der Porzellanerzeugung in Europa und anderen Teilen der Erde. eBay Kleinanzeigen: Ming Vasen, Kleinanzeigen - Jetzt finden oder inserieren! eBay Kleinanzeigen - Kostenlos. Einfach. Lokal. Seine Blütezeit erlebte der Stil aber erst in der Ming-Dynastie; insbesondere die geradezu sprichwörtlich gewordene „Mingvase“ prägt die europäische. Mythos 9: Ming-Vasen sind unersetzbar. sothebys Eine kunstvoll verzierte chinesische Vase. Die Ming-Dynastie herrschte vom Jahrhundert bis. Top-Angebote für Ming Vase online entdecken bei eBay. Top Marken | Günstige Preise | Große Auswahl.

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eBay Kleinanzeigen: Ming Vasen, Kleinanzeigen - Jetzt finden oder inserieren! eBay Kleinanzeigen - Kostenlos. Einfach. Lokal. Top-Angebote für Ming Vase online entdecken bei eBay. Top Marken | Günstige Preise | Große Auswahl. Mythos 9: Ming-Vasen sind unersetzbar. sothebys Eine kunstvoll verzierte chinesische Vase. Die Ming-Dynastie herrschte vom Jahrhundert bis. von mehr als Ergebnissen oder Vorschlägen für "ming vase". Beliebte 1-Trends in in Heim und Garten, Heimwerkerbedarf, Möbel mit Ming Vase und 1. Entdecken Sie über unserer besten 1 auf. Sie sind an der richtigen Stelle für ming vase. Mittlerweile wissen Sie bereits, was Sie auch suchen, Sie werden es auf AliExpress sicher finden. Wir haben. Diese chinesische Ming-Vase ist eine besonders exklusive Antiquität aus dem China der Ming-Dynastie ( bis ). Diese Vasen sind bekannt für ihre. Deshalb kommen Chinesen nach London, Paris oder Köln und ersteigern chinesische Kunst. Vase aus der Ming Dynastie 16th century Ming. Ming Vasen

Chinese blue and white vase painted fish late Ming Provincial. Make offer - Chinese blue and white vase painted fish late Ming Provincial.

Chinese Longquan incised celadon jar Ming dynasty 16th century. Make offer - Chinese Longquan incised celadon jar Ming dynasty 16th century.

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Age see all. Not specified. Features see all. Product see all. Vase Filter Applied. Chinese Dynasty see all. This dangerous knowledge had the ability to ruin a buyer's reputation but on the contrary contributed to the success of kilns.

In observing court orders, porcelain was required for culinary, religious, and display purposes. Since porcelain was often used once and thrown away by the court, imperial orders were at a continuous flow in porcelain factories.

From their respective kilns, fine porcelain was distributed over sea and land to Southeast Asia, Japan and the Middle East. The magnitude of foreign trade can be understood in a record showing over sixteen million pieces circulating through a Dutch East India Company.

Dozens of carts sent from Mongolia, Manchuria, Persia and Arabic countries were loaded in the Ming capital full of porcelain and other Chinese goods.

Some carts reached thirty feet in height which must have required extreme attention to avoid broken porcelain. Due to the hollowness of porcelain vases, they were filled with soil and beans.

In order to effectively transport large amounts of porcelain, as much space in carts must have been used indicated by the thirty foot high carts.

Knowing the risk that came with placing fragile porcelain next to and on top of one another, handlers of the porcelain mitigated that risk through the soil and bean method.

Like the silk industry, the porcelain industry claimed merit for its mass-producing capabilities. Potters from lower economic backgrounds stuck true to their repetitive methods mostly due to the high risk in attempting new and not tested methods.

Trying new techniques could result in the loss of an entire month's worth of work so for these potters, changing their method was not a luxury they could afford.

For potters within Jingdezhen, the code that governed the way their products were created was greatly influenced by international markets.

Foreign trade was not always beneficial for potters because the further away that products had to go from the source Ex: Jingdezhen the more vulnerable cargo became.

In examining a report of a Spanish voyage, about a fifth of a Chinese ship crew were killed when met by a Spanish voyager of the name Juan de Salcedo.

Overall, international markets offered great potential for potters seeking greater wealth but unfortunately came with a vulnerability to crime. Trade on an international scale required organization between chiefs and potters.

Throughout the Southeast Asian trading ports, chiefs had the power to set port fees as well as control interactions between elite merchants and foreign traders.

Potters of luxury porcelain would have to work under the rules set by the chiefs and thus their relationship constructed a hierarchy. Chinese potters have a long tradition of borrowing design and decorative features from earlier wares.

Whilst ceramics with features thus borrowed might sometimes pose problems of provenance , they would not generally be regarded as either reproductions or fakes.

However, fakes and reproductions have also been made at many times during the long history of Chinese ceramics and continue to be made today in ever-increasing numbers.

In addition, the reign marks of earlier emperors typically from the Ming were often put on Qing wares, which scholars are often inclined to treat as a mark of respect or aspiration rather than an attempt to deceive, although they clearly did often mislead centemporaries, and confuse understanding.

The most widely known test is the thermoluminescence test, or TL test, which is used on some types of ceramic to estimate, roughly, the date of last firing.

Thermoluminescence dating is carried out on small samples of pottery drilled or cut from the body of a piece, which can be risky and disfiguring.

For this reason, the test is rarely used for dating finely potted, high-fired ceramics. TL testing cannot be used at all on some types of ceramics, particularly high-fired porcelain.

Water jar from the Neolithic period, Yangshao culture ca. Painted pot with frog motifs, Majiayao culture — BC. Painted pot of Majiayao culture — BC.

Large grey mug, Henan Longshan culture , Late Neolithic period ca. White pottery pitcher from the Shandong Longshan culture , — BC. White pottery pot with geometric design, Shang dynasty — BC.

A pottery bell from the Warring States period — BC. A painted pottery dou vessel with a dragon design from the Warring States period BC.

Ceramic statues with polychrome , from the 2nd century BC, Han dynasty. An earthenware goose pourer with lacquerware paint designs, Western Han dynasty , late 3rd century BC to early 1st century AD.

A Han celadon pot with mountain-shaped lid and animal designs. Western Han dynasty terracotta vases with acrobats.

An Eastern Han glazed ceramic statue of a horse with halter and bridle headgear, late 2nd century or early 3rd century AD. A Western Han glazed pottery ding with taotie -faced door knocker designs.

An Eastern Han ceramic candle -holder with animal figurines. A celadon ceramic candle holder in the shape of a crouched lion , Three Kingdoms period — , made in Eastern Wu.

A celadon hunping jar with sculpted designs of architecture , from the Jin dynasty A black-glazed wine or water jug with a rooster -headed spout, Jin dynasty A footed earthenware lamp with lions , from either the Northern Dynasties period or Sui dynasty , 6th century.

Covered footed earthenware vessel from the Northern Qi — Northern Dynasties lotus vessel. A Western Wei — ceramic figurine of a military officer.

A ceramic cavalryman with a horn, Northern Wei — Grey stoneware jar with high-fired glaze. Sui dynasty The jar is a utilitarian object with lugs on its shoulder to secure a cloth or rattan lid.

A rounded ceramic plate with sancai "three colours" glaze, 8th century. A ceramic offering plate with "three colours" glaze, decorated with a bird and trees, 8th century.

Earthenware figures of female attendants, with coloured lead glazes, Tang dynasty, early 8th century. Funerary vase and cover, green-glazed Longquan celadon , Northern Song — A Longquan celadon vase from the Song dynasty.

Southern Song dynasty celadon vase with dish shaped mouth, Longquan celadon. Longquan celadon wares, 13th century. Tea bowls in stoneware , 12th to 13th century.

Left Jizhou ware , right Jian ware. Qingbai teapot, from Jingdezhen. Ding ware porcelain dish with transparent glaze and carved decoration, 11th-early 12th century.

Qingbai box with flower medallions. Unusual painted Ding ware bottle with iron pigment over transparent colourless glaze, 11th century.

One of the famous set of lifesize Yixian glazed pottery luohans , sancai , early 12th century. Northern Song dynasty white-glazed baby boy pillow.

A glazed stoneware pillow from the Song dynasty, Cizhou ware. Porcelain pillow Jin dynasty — , Cizhou ware. Celadon shoulder pot, late Yuan dynasty, with relief peaches, lotuses, peonies, willows, and palms.

A Jin or Yuan dynasty "Official Jun ware " stoneware dish, 13thth century. Longquan celadon , 13thth century. Covered jar, Longquan celadon , 14th century.

Sancai -glazed Chinese ceramic incense burner , Yuan dynasty. Guanyin statuette, Yuan dynasty. Guanyin Goddess of Mercy with children, statuette made of Dehua porcelain ware.

Dish, Yongle reign , porcelain with underglaze blue. Porcelain plate from , during the Chongzhen period — Porcelain vase from the reign of the Jiajing Emperor — A Ming glazed earthenware statue of a seated buddha.

Wanli period covered jar in green and yellow. Transitional porcelain , midth century. Transitional porcelain , c. Famille rose plate from a famous set made for the 60th birthday of the Kangxi Emperor in Vase, Kangxi reign — , painted with famille jaune enamels on the biscuit and on the glaze.

Vase in the form of a Pomegranate, Yongzheng reign — , "claire-de-lune glaze". Famille rose dish with flowering prunus , Copper-red porcelain from the reign of the Yongzheng Emperor — Porcelain from the reign of the Qianlong Emperor — Porcelain plate, Qianlong Emperor — , for export to the Dutch.

Snuff bottle, 9. Famille rose vase with peaches one of a pair , Qianlong reign. White porcelain from the reign of the Qianlong Emperor — Pair of famille rose vases with landscapes of the four seasons, Porcelain vase decorated with flowers and birds made at Jingdezhen , Jiangxi ,.

This type of ware, known for its colourful decoration that covers most of the surface of the piece, was popular as an export ware. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Redirected from Ming Vase. For general information about the material, see Porcelain. Further information: Porcelain trade in Qing China.

Main article: Tang dynasty tomb figures. Main article: Jian ware. Main article: Jizhou ware. Main article: Ding ware. Main article: Ru ware.

Main article: Jun ware. Main article: Guan ware. Main article: Ge ware. Main article: Qingbai ware. Main article: Blue and white porcelain.

Main article: Blanc de Chine. Main article: Famille jaune, noire, rose, verte. Examples of famille verte works. Examples of famille rose works.

Ceramic tomb statuette of a cavalryman and horse, Western Han dynasty. An Eastern Han pottery tomb model of residential towers joined by a bridge.

A footed Western Han white ceramic wine warmer with animal-head figurines decorating its lid. Sancai -horse and figurine, Tang dynasty. A ceramic offering plate with six eaves and "three colours" glaze, 8th century.

Celadon amphora with dragon handles. Vase with famille rose enamels, Qianlong reign. Paul Rado. Pergamon Press, Institute of Ceramics.

Oxford University Press, Kuala Lumpur. Cambridge University Press. The New York Times. Chinese Ceramics. The New Standard Guide.

The Han Dynasty made the first ceramics to survive in appreciable quantities. Thames and Hudson, London.

Chinese Art. Asian Art Museum. Archived from the original on Seattle Art Museum. Retrieved 29 March The Walters Art Museum. Chinese Glazes.

Black, London. Watt, "Antiquarianism and Naturalism," in Possessing the Past , pp. The British Museum. See also Clunas, Superfluous Things , pp.

Retrieved Chinese Porcelain. Octopus Books, London. A Handbook of Chinese Ceramics. Metropolitan Museum of Art. Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient : — Ayers, J.

Harrison-Hall, J. Ming Porcelain. Translated by Katherine Watson. Rawson, Jessica ed. Ayers, J and Kerr, R. Brook, Timothy.

Donnelly, P. Gao, Lian. Yearbook of Oriental Art and Culture , 1, — Kotz, Suzanne ed. Chinese Ceramics from the Percival David Foundation.

Chronicle Books, San Francisco. Li, Chu-tsing and James C. Watt, eds. The Chinese scholar's studio: artistic life in the late Ming period.

New York: Thames and Hudson, Li, He, A lighter shade of blue on white, rather than a bright cobalt, could mean it was made in China rather than in 19th-century Japan or mid 18th-century England, Mason said.

Turn your vase over and look for the mark. Chinese porcelain was made in three categories: imperial, domestic or "peoples' ware" and export.

The imperial and peoples' ware, and often goods made for Japan or Southeast Asia, carried marks on the bottom of the porcelain. Imperial goods were made in a special kiln in the city of Jingdezhen.

Study the marks. Imperial reign marks can help date a piece, and there were 16 emperors one reigned twice during the dynasty's nearly three centuries.

For starters, if the vase says "Made in China," it's from the s or later. Before the s, almost all marks were in Chinese characters -- read them in one, two or three columns, top to bottom and right to left.

If they are in a horizontal row, Nilsson says, that's a tipoff it's either extremely early, museum worthy Ming -- or, more likely, a fake.

Dish, Yongle reignporcelain with underglaze blue. A Handbook of Chinese Ceramics. In similar Ming Vasen to Longquan celadonsRu pieces have small amounts of iron oxide in their glaze that oxidize and turn greenish when fired in a reducing atmosphere. In some cases stoneware was Random Online for its darker colour or better working qualities. Green-glazed potteryusing lead-glazed earthenware in part Ming Vasen the later sancai formula, was used for some of these, though not for wares for use, as the raw lead made the glaze poisonous. The tea caddy illustrated Extra Stars Slot Free Play many of the characteristics of blue and white porcelain produced during the Kangxi period. Proto-celadon 16th century BCE Celadon 1st century Yue 2nd century Ding 10th century Qingbai 12th century Apps Bestenliste 11th century on Blue and white 14th century Jewels Gratis Spielen Blanc de Chine 14th century on Kraak 16th Reich Ohne Arbeit Swatow 16th century Tianqi 17th century Kangxi 17th century Famille jaune, noire, rose, verte 17th century Canton 18th century. In order to effectively transport large amounts of porcelain, as much space in carts Champignons Ligue have been used indicated by the thirty foot high carts. A painted pottery dou vessel with a dragon design from the Warring States period BC. Porcelain vase from the reign of the Jiajing Emperor —

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Stoneware , fired at higher temperatures, and naturally impervious to water, was developed very early and continued to be used for fine pottery in many areas at most periods; the tea bowls in Jian ware and Jizhou ware made during the Song dynasty are examples.

Porcelain , on a Western definition, is "a collective term comprising all ceramic ware that is white and translucent, no matter what ingredients are used to make it or to what use it is put".

Terms such as " porcellaneous " or "near-porcelain" may be used for stonewares with porcelain-like characteristics.

Chinese pottery can also be classified as being either northern or southern. China comprises two separate and geologically different land masses, brought together by continental drift and forming a junction that lies between the Yellow and Yangtze rivers, sometimes known as the Nanshan - Qinling divide.

The contrasting geology of the north and south led to differences in the raw materials available for making ceramics; in particular the north lacks petunse or "porcelain stone", needed for porcelain on the strict definition.

Ware-types can be from very widespread kiln-sites in either north or south China, but the two can nearly always be distinguished, and influences across this divide may affect shape and decoration, but will be based on very different clay bodies, with fundamental effects.

The kiln types were also different, and in the north the fuel was usually coal, as opposed to wood in the south, which often affects the wares.

Southern materials have high silica , low alumina and high potassium oxide , the reverse of northern materials in each case.

The northern materials are often very suitable for stoneware, while in the south there are also areas highly suitable for porcelain.

In the context of Chinese ceramics, the term porcelain lacks a universally accepted definition see above. This in turn has led to confusion about when the first Chinese porcelain was made.

Kiln technology has always been a key factor in the development of Chinese pottery. These were updraft kilns, often built below ground.

Two main types of kiln were developed by about AD and remained in use until modern times. These are the dragon kiln of hilly southern China, usually fuelled by wood, long and thin and running up a slope, and the horseshoe-shaped mantou kiln of the north Chinese plains, smaller and more compact.

In the late Ming, the egg-shaped kiln zhenyao was developed at Jingdezhen , but mainly used there.

This was something of a compromise between the other types, and offered locations in the firing chamber with a range of firing conditions.

Important specific types of pottery, many coming from more than one period, are dealt with individually in sections lower down. Pottery dating from 20, years ago was found at the Xianrendong Cave site in Jiangxi province, [10] [11] making it among the earliest pottery yet found.

Another reported find is from 17,—18, years ago in the Yuchanyan Cave in southern China. By the Middle and Late Neolithic about to BCE most of the larger archaeological cultures in China were farmers producing a variety of attractive and often large vessels, often boldly painted, or decorated by cutting or impressing.

Decoration is abstract or of stylized animals — fish are a speciality at the river settlement of Banpo. The distinctive Majiayao pottery, with orange bodies and black paint, is characterised by fine paste textures, thin walls, and polished surfaces; the almost complete lack of defects in excavated pots suggests a high level of quality control during production.

Previously coil-forming was used for large vessels. Finds of vessels are mostly in burials; sometimes they hold the remains. By — BCE in the Dawenkou culture shapes later familiar from Chinese ritual bronzes begin to appear.

One exceptional ritual site, Niuheliang in the far north, produced numerous human figurines, some about half life-size.

On some Chinese definitions, the first porcelain was made in Zhejiang province during the Eastern Han dynasty.

The dividing line between the two and true porcelain wares is not a clear one. The late Han years saw the early development of the peculiar art form of hunping , or "soul jar": a funerary jar whose top was decorated by a sculptural composition.

This type of vessel became widespread during the following Jin dynasty — and the Six Dynasties. The tomb figures that were to recur in the Tang were popular across society, but with more emphasis than later on model houses and farm animals.

Green-glazed pottery , using lead-glazed earthenware in part of the later sancai formula, was used for some of these, though not for wares for use, as the raw lead made the glaze poisonous.

During the Sui and Tang dynasties to AD , a wide range of ceramics, low-fired and high-fired, were produced.

These included the last significant fine earthenwares to be produced in China, mostly lead-glazed sancai three-colour wares.

Many of the well-known lively Tang dynasty tomb figures , which were only made to be placed in elite tombs close to the capital in the north, are in sancai , while others are unpainted or were painted over a slip ; the paint has now often fallen off.

The sancai vessels too may have been mainly for tombs, which is where they are all found; the glaze was less toxic than in the Han, but perhaps still to be avoided for use at the dining table.

In the south, the wares from the Changsha Tongguan Kiln Site in Tongguan are significant for their first regular use of underglaze painting; examples have been found in many places in the Islamic world.

However their production tailed off as underglaze painting remained a minor technique for several centuries. Yue ware was the leading high-fired, lime-glazed celadon of the period, and was of very sophisticated design, patronized by the court.

This was also the case with the northern porcelains of kilns in the provinces of Henan and Hebei , which for the first time met the Western and Eastern definition of porcelain, being both pure white and translucent.

They have in China a very fine clay with which they make vases which are as transparent as glass; water is seen through them. The vases are made of clay.

The pottery of the Song dynasty has retained enormous prestige in Chinese tradition, especially that of what later became known as the " Five Great Kilns ".

The artistic emphasis of Song pottery was on subtle glaze effects and graceful shapes; other decoration, where there was any, was mostly in shallow relief.

Initially this was carved with a knife, but later moulds were used, with a loss of artistic quality. Painting was mostly used in the popular Cizhou ware.

Green ware or celadons were popular, both in China and in export markets, which became increasingly important during the period. Yue ware was succeeded by Northern Celadon and then in the south Longquan celadon.

White and black wares were also important, especially in Cizhou ware , and there were polychrome types, but the finer types of ceramics, for the court and the literati, remained monochrome, relying on glaze effects and shape.

A wide variety of styles evolved in various areas, and those that were successful were imitated in other areas. Whitish porcelain continued to be improved, and included the continuation of Ding ware and the arrival of the qingbai which would replace it.

The Liao, Xia and Jin were founded by non-literate, often nomadic people who conquered parts of China. Pottery production continued under their rule, but their own artistic traditions merged to some extent with the Chinese, producing characteristic new styles.

The fine pottery of all these regions was mainly high-fired, with some earthenware produced because of its lower cost and more colourful glazes.

Some of the clay used was what is called kaolinite in the West. In some cases stoneware was preferred for its darker colour or better working qualities.

Potteries used the local clay, and when that was dark or coarse and they wanted a fine white body, they covered the clay with white slip before applying glaze.

The Mongol Yuan dynasty enforced the movement of artists of all sorts around the Mongol Empire, which in ceramics brought a major stylistic and technical influence from the Islamic world in the form of blue and white porcelain , with underglaze painting in cobalt.

This has been described as the "last great innovation in ceramic technology". This was a great contrast to the bright colours and complicated designs developed under the Yuan, whose organization was mostly based on Islamic art , especially metalwork, although the animal and vegetable motifs remained based on Chinese tradition.

Export markets readily accepted the style, which has continued to be produced ever since, both in China and around the world.

Because of this, improvements in water transportation and the re-unification under Mongol rule, pottery production started to concentrate near deposits of kaolin , such as Jingdezhen , which gradually became the pre-eminent centre for producing porcelain in a variety of styles, a position it has held ever since.

The scale of production greatly increased, and the scale and organization of the kilns became industrialized, with ownership by commercial syndicates, much division of labour , and other typical features of mass production.

The Ming dynasty saw an extraordinary period of innovation in ceramic manufacture. Kilns investigated new techniques in design and shapes, showing a predilection for colour and painted design, and an openness to foreign forms.

Prior to this the cobalt had been brilliant in colour, but with a tendency to bleed in firing; by adding manganese the colour was duller, but the line crisper.

Xuande porcelain is now considered among the finest of all Ming output. This esteem for relatively recent ceramics excited much scorn on the part of literati scholars such as Wen Zhenheng , Tu Long , and Gao Lian , who is cited below ; these men fancied themselves arbiters of taste and found the painted aesthetic 'vulgar.

In addition to these decorative innovations, the late Ming dynasty underwent a dramatic shift towards a market economy , [40] exporting porcelain around the world on an unprecedented scale.

Thus aside from supplying porcelain for domestic use, the kilns at Jingdezhen became the main production centre for large-scale porcelain exports to Europe starting with the reign of the Wanli Emperor — By this time, kaolin and pottery stone were mixed in about equal proportions.

Kaolin produced wares of great strength when added to the paste; it also enhanced the whiteness of the body—a trait that became a much sought after property, especially when form blue-and-white wares grew in popularity.

These sorts of variations were important to keep in mind because the large southern egg-shaped kiln varied greatly in temperature.

Near the firebox it was hottest; near the chimney, at the opposite end of the kiln, it was cooler. The lengthy civil wars marking the transition from Ming to Qing caused a breakdown in the Imperial kilns system, forcing the managers to find new markets.

The Transitional porcelain of about to the s saw a new style in painting, mostly in blue and white, with new subject-matter of landscapes and figures painted very freely, borrowing from other media.

The later part of the period saw Europe joining the existing export markets. The Qing dynasty produced very varied porcelain styles, developing many of the innovations of the Ming.

The most notable area of continuing innovation was in the increasing range of colours available, mostly in overglaze enamels.

A very significant trade in Chinese export porcelain with the West developed. Court taste was highly eclectic, still favouring monochrome wares, which now used a wide range of bright glaze colours.

Special glazing effects were highly regarded; new ones were developed and classic Song wares imitated with great skill. But the court now accepted wares with painted scenes in both blue and white and the new bright polychrome palettes.

Technical standards at Jingdezhen were remarkably high, though falling somewhat by the middle of the 19th century. Decoration, and sometimes shapes, became increasingly over-elaborate and fussy, and generally the Ming period is regarded as the greater; indeed in China this was the case at the time.

By the 18th century the tradition had ceased to innovate in any radical way, and the vitality of painting declines.

Primary source material on Qing dynasty porcelain is available from both foreign residents and domestic authors.

He then went on to describe the refining of china clay kaolin along with the developmental stages of glazing and firing.

He explained his motives:. Nothing but my curiosity could ever have prompted me to such researches, but it appears to me that a minute description of all that concerns this kind of work might, be useful in Europe.

In , during the reign of the Qianlong Emperor , Tang Ying , the imperial supervisor in the city produced a memoir entitled Twenty Illustrations of the Manufacture of Porcelain.

The original illustrations have been lost, but the text is still accessible. Sancai means "three-colours": green, yellow and a creamy white, all in lead-based glazes.

In fact some other colours could be used, including cobalt blue. In the West, Tang sancai wares were sometimes referred to as egg-and-spinach.

Sancai wares were northern wares made using white and buff-firing secondary kaolins and fire clays. The burial wares were fired at a lower temperature than contemporaneous whitewares.

Tang dynasty tomb figures , such as the well-known representations of camels and horses, were cast in sections, in moulds with the parts luted together using clay slip.

They were either painted in sancai or merely coated in white slip, often with paint added over the glaze, which has now mostly been lost.

In some cases, a degree of individuality was imparted to the assembled figurines by hand-carving. The major group of celadon wares is named for its glaze, which uses iron oxide to give a broad spectrum of colours centred on a jade or olive green, but covering browns, cream and light blues.

This is a similar range to that of jade , always the most prestigious material in Chinese art, and the broad resemblance accounts for much of the attractiveness of celadon to the Chinese.

Celadons are plain or decorated in relief , which may be carved, inscribed or moulded. Sometimes taken by the imperial court, celadons had a more regular market with the scholarly and middle classes, and were also exported in enormous quantities.

Jian Zhan blackwares, mainly comprising tea wares, were made at kilns located in Jianyang, Fujian province.

They reached the peak of their popularity during the Song dynasty. The glaze was made using clay similar to that used for forming the body, except fluxed with wood- ash.

At high temperatures the molten glaze separate to produce a pattern called "hare's fur". When Jian wares were set tilted for firing, drips run down the side, creating evidence of liquid glaze pooling.

Jian tea wares of the Song dynasty were also greatly appreciated and copied in Japan, where they were known as tenmoku wares.

Jizhou ware was stoneware, mostly used for tea drinking. It was famous for glaze effects, including a "tortoiseshell" glaze, and the use of real leaves as glaze resists; the leaf burnt away during firing, leaving its outlines in the glaze.

Already in production when the Song emperors came to power in , Ding ware was the finest porcelain produced in northern China at the time, and was the first to enter the palace for official imperial use.

Its paste is white, generally covered with an almost transparent glaze that dripped and collected in "tears", though some Ding ware was glazed a monochrome black or brown, white was the much more common type.

Overall, the Ding aesthetic relied more on its elegant shape than ostentatious decoration; designs were understated, either incised or stamped into the clay prior to glazing.

Due to the way the dishes were stacked in the kiln, the edged remained unglazed, and had to be rimmed in metal such as gold or silver when used as tableware.

Some hundred years later, a Southern Song dynasty writer commented that it was this defect that led to its demise as favoured imperial ware.

Although not as highly ranked as Ru ware, the late Ming dynasty connoisseur Gao Lian awards Ding ware a brief mention in his volume Eight Discourses on the Art of Living.

Classified under his sixth discourse, the section on "pure enjoyment of cultured idleness", Master Gao said: "The best sort has marks on it like tear-stains… Great skill and ingenuity is displayed in selecting the forms of the vessels.

The Ru kilns were near the Northern Song capital at Kaifeng. In similar fashion to Longquan celadons , Ru pieces have small amounts of iron oxide in their glaze that oxidize and turn greenish when fired in a reducing atmosphere.

Ru wares range in colour—from nearly white to a deep robin's egg—and often are covered with reddish-brown crackles.

The crackles, or " crazing ", are caused when the glaze cools and contracts faster than the body, thus having to stretch and ultimately to split, as seen in the detail at right; see also [1].

The art historian James Watt comments that the Song dynasty was the first period that viewed crazing as a merit rather than a defect. Moreover, as time went on, the bodies got thinner and thinner, while glazes got thicker, until by the end of the Southern Song the 'green-glaze' was thicker than the body, making it extremely 'fleshy' rather than 'bony,' to use the traditional analogy see section on Guan ware, below.

Too, the glaze tends to drip and pool slightly, leaving it thinner at the top, where the clay peeps through.

As with Ding ware, the Song imperial court lost access to the Ru kilns after it fled Kaifeng when the Jurchen -led Jin dynasty conquered northern China, and settled at Lin'an present-day Hangzhou in the south.

There, the Emperor Gaozong founded the Guan yao 'official kilns' right outside the new capital in order to produce imitations of Ru ware. Jun Wade—Giles: chün ware was a third style of porcelain used at the Northern Song court.

Characterized by a thicker body than Ding or Ru ware, Jun is covered with a turquoise and purple glaze, so thick and viscous looking that appears to melting off the golden-brown body.

Not only are Jun vessels more thickly potted, their shape is much more robust than the fine Jun pieces, yet both types were appreciated at the court of Emperor Huizong.

Jun production was centred at Jun-tai in Yuzhou , Henan Province. Guan Wade—Giles: kuan ware, literally means "official" ware; so certain Ru, Jun, and even Ding are Guan in the broad sense of being produced for the court.

Usually the term in English only applies to that produced by an official, imperially run kiln, which did not start until the Southern Song dynasty fled from the advancing Jin dynasty and settled at Lin'an.

It was during this period that walls become so thin and glaze so thick that the latter superseded the former in breadth.

As the clay in the foothills around Lin'an, was a brownish colour, and the glaze so viscous. Ge Wade—Giles: ko , literally "big-brother" ware, due to a legend of two brothers working in Longquan, one made the typical celadon style ceramics, the elder made ge ware, produced in his private kiln.

Ming dynasty commentator Gao Lian writes that the ge kiln took its clay from the same site as Guan ware, accounting for the difficulty in distinguishing one from the other though Gao thinks " Ge is distinctly inferior" to Guan.

Once thought to have only been manufactured alongside Longquan celadon , per its legendary founding, Ge is now believed to have also been produced at Jingdezhen.

While similar to Guan ware, Ge typically has a grayish-blue glaze that is fully opaque with an almost matte finish. Its crackle pattern is exaggerated, often standing out in bold black.

Though still shrouded in mystery, many specialists believe that Ge ware did not develop until the very late Southern Song dynasty or even the Yuan dynasty.

In any case, enthusiasm for it persisted throughout the Ming dynasty; Wen Zhenheng preferred it to all other types of porcelain, in particular for brush washers and water droppers although he preferred jade brush washers to porcelain, Guan and Ge were the best ceramic ones, especially if they have scalloped rims.

Qingbai wares also called 'yingqing' [57] were made at Jingdezhen and at many other southern kilns from the time of the Northern Song dynasty until they were eclipsed in the 14th century by underglaze-decorated blue and white wares.

Qingbai in Chinese literally means "clear blue-white". The qingbai glaze is a porcelain glaze , so-called because it was made using pottery stone.

The qingbai glaze is clear, but contains iron in small amounts. When applied over a white porcelain body the glaze produces a greenish-blue colour that gives the glaze its name.

Some have incised or moulded decorations. The Song dynasty qingbai bowl illustrated was likely made at the Jingdezhen village of Hutian, which was also the site of the imperial kilns established in The bowl has incised decoration, possibly representing clouds or the reflection of clouds in the water.

The body is white, translucent and has the texture of very-fine sugar , indicating that it was made using crushed and refined pottery stone instead of pottery stone and kaolin.

The glaze and the body of the bowl would have been fired together, in a saggar in a large wood-burning dragon kiln , typical of southern kilns in the period.

Though many Song and Yuan dynasty qingbai bowls were fired upside down in special segmented saggars, a technique first developed at the Ding kilns in Hebei province.

The rims of such wares were left unglazed but were often bound with bands of silver , copper or lead. One remarkable example of qingbai porcelain is the so-called Fonthill Vase , described in a guide for Fonthill Abbey published in as "an oriental china bottle, superbly mounted, said to be the earliest known specimen of porcelain introduced into Europe".

The vase was made at Jingdezhen, probably around and was probably sent as a present to Pope Benedict XII by one of the last Yuan emperors of China, in The mounts referred to in the description were of enamelled silver-gilt and were added to the vase in Europe in An 18th-century water colour of the vase complete with its mounts exists, but the mounts themselves were removed and lost in the 19th century.

The vase is now in the National Museum of Ireland. It is often held that qingbai wares were not subject to the higher standards and regulations of the other porcelain wares, since they were made for everyday use.

They were mass-produced, and received little attention from scholars and antiquarians. The Fonthill Vase, given by a Chinese emperor to a pope, might appear to cast at least some doubt on this view.

Following in the tradition of earlier qingbai porcelains, blue and white wares are glazed using a transparent porcelain glaze.

The blue decoration is painted onto the body of the porcelain before glazing, using very finely ground cobalt oxide mixed with water.

Ming porcelain, made in China between and , has so endeared itself to collectors that it's almost become synonymous with blue and white Asian designs.

Almost -- yet often not even close to the genuine article. The intricacies of the real thing, however, require a good eye and a lot of learning.

Read all about it. Jan-Erik Nilsson of the collectors' website Gotheborg. Thanks to all the fakes, there are many genuine pieces around not properly identified as such.

A flea market bargain could easily turn out to be the real thing," says Nilsson on his website, which maintains a list of " Best Books.

Pick up your vase and give it a good look. An "Antiques Roadshow" interview with porcelain pro Lark Mason recommends you begin by evaluating the shape, design, feel and colors.

True porcelain, made only in Asia until the 18th century, is translucent rather than opaque.

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